What is Blood Glucose?
There’s a clear link between high glucose and diabetes that can lead to dangerous complications for your eyes, heart, elevated inflammatory markers, and other organs. The pancreas in our body produces insulin, a hormone to control the glucose level and normally prevent diabetes. Insulin interacts with body cells to allow glucose to enter the cells and be used as energy. All the extra glucose in the bloodstream gets stored as glycogen in the cells of the liver, muscle, and fat cells. When blood glucose levels reduce in the bloodstream, for example, when fasting, the body uses this stored energy to balance glucose levels. There may be three abnormalities:
- The body cannot produce enough insulin.
- Insulin doesn’t work correctly in our body because cells typically do not respond to it.
- Glucose intake is very high.
In the short term, blood sugar can rise due to inactivity, stress, after meals, sugary drinks, infection, illness, medication side effects, and changes in hormone levels.
Blood Glucose and Diabetes
Several reasons cause Diabetes. The most common causes are genetic mutation, abnormal insulin actions, body cell receptors not responding to insulin, ethnic background, insulin excretion defects, pancreatic defects, infections, the effects of some drugs, family history, and other factors such as the environment and your health.
Hyperglycemia occurs when too much sugar is left in the blood after insulin has helped cells absorb glucose. Conversely, Hyperglycemia occurs when our body has too little insulin or can’t use insulin properly.
- A person is prediabetic when the glucose level is measured under fasting between 100 mg/dL and 125 mg/dL.
- Blood glucose measured more significantly than 125 mg/dL while fasting is diabetic.
- A person with blood glucose greater than 180 mg/dL one to two hours after eating.
If Hyperglycemia is left untreated for an extended period, it can damage nerves, blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Blood vessel damage can increase the risk of a heart attack or stroke. Nerve damage may lead to damage to the eye, kidney, and wounds.
Hyperglycemia and Ketones
The high-level glucose is either converted into energy or stored in our body. If this state persists for an extended period, it can lead to Hyperglycemia. On the other hand, if our body does not produce enough insulin, it will start using stored energy in fat. The breakdown of fat can release ketones in the blood, which make the blood acidic. This state with high ketone levels in the blood is called Ketoacidosis, and complications occurring due to Diabetes in a person are known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA can lead a person into a coma and is life-threatening.
Blood Glucose Monitoring: A Crucial Tool in Diabetes Management
What does Blood Glucose Monitoring entail?
The method of measuring the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood is known as blood glucose monitoring. It is an important part of diabetes care because it helps people with diabetes understand how their blood sugar levels fluctuate throughout the day. People with diabetes who consistently monitor their blood glucose levels can make informed decisions about their food, physical exercise, and medication or insulin doses to attain and maintain better blood sugar control.
Maintaining blood glucose levels within the target range is critical for diabetics to avoid both short-term and long-term issues. They can do the following with regular monitoring:
Personalize Glucose and Diabetes Management: Everyone reacts differently to food, exercise, medications, and other things. Blood glucose and diabetes monitoring allows diabetes management to be tailored to individual needs, resulting in more effective control.
Detect Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia: Monitoring allows for the early detection of episodes of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), allowing for timely action to avoid consequences.
Assess Treatment Effectiveness: Monitoring reveals how well diabetes control techniques are functioning. It assists healthcare providers in determining whether medication, diet, or physical activity changes are required.
Prevent Acute Complications: Early detection of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia allows people to take appropriate action, avoiding major acute complications including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or severe hypoglycemia.
Prevent Long-term Complications: Maintaining constant blood glucose control lowers the risk of long-term consequences such as diabetes retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.
You can make informed decisions regarding their lifestyle, medicine, and overall diabetes management if they understand their blood sugar levels. Regular monitoring, combined with a proactive approach and support from healthcare providers, can result in better blood sugar management, a higher quality of life, and a lower risk of problems for diabetics.
How is Blood Sugar Monitoring Performed?
- Monitoring blood glucose requires a glucose meter, a portable device that measures blood sugar levels. Typically, the procedure consists of the following steps:
- A small amount of blood is extracted from the fingertip using a lancet. Some devices permit alternative sites for blood sampling, such as the palm or forearm.
- The blood sample is applied to a disposable test strip, which is subsequently inserted into the glucose meter.
- Reading the Outcome: In a few seconds, the glucose meter analyzes the blood sample and displays the blood glucose level on a digital display.
- Frequency of Monitoring: The frequency of blood glucose monitoring depends on the type of diabetes, the treatment plan, and the individual’s requirements. Some individuals may require monitoring multiple times per day, particularly those receiving insulin therapy or undergoing changes in diabetes management. Others may require less frequent monitoring based on the stability of their diabetes.
Blood glucose monitoring is an effective instrument that empowers diabetics to manage their condition. By comprehending their blood sugar levels, individuals with diabetes can make informed decisions regarding their lifestyle, medications, and overall diabetes management. Regular monitoring, coupled with a proactive approach and the assistance of healthcare providers, can lead to better blood sugar control, an improvement in quality of life, and a reduction in the risk of complications for people with diabetes.